Proof of that some life will be felt after death:
Afterlife (life after death) is in the future, for sensations of any person, and, the future of this world is also in the future. We live and observe that the future is always coming and coming to us. Similarly, if God wills, the life of afterlife will also will be coming to every person.
Logically, the future of this world has not to come to us. Because, whichever law of physics we look at, it is just a theory, not a fact. All facts are in the past, not in the future. Basing on these facts from the past, people and scientists develop new theories, and then predict the facts of the future using these theories. The facts of the future do not come from the facts of the past immediately only by logic, but prognosticated using theories or hypotheses. What is coming immediately only by logic? Example of it: if assertion “A is a letter” is true and asserion “any letter is part of an alphabet” is true, idea “A is in the alphabet” logically follows from these. Now, to compare, try to think about the facts of the world: for example, look at the widely known force of gravity: imagine that you are conducting an experiment, you raise a pen and release it, and it falls. After it falls, its fall becomes a fact, true. This experiment has already been carried out not once, but many times. But, from trueness of ideas “the pen fell when it was released at 17:33” and “the pen fell when it was released at 17:34”, idea “the pen fell when it was released at 17:35” does not appear only by logic. Same situation is with other physical forces. Thus, logically, the laws of physics are not obliged to be executed in the future after 1 second from now, and at all, this point of time, after 1 second, of our world, is not obliged to come to us. However, we observe that it is coming and live inside this process. Afterlife is also in the future, and it will also come, if God wills.
Maybe our world consists of separate moments (frozen states of the world, matter). Between two neighbor such moments is a very small part of a second. But it is a tiny fraction of a second only for us, but actually it can be considered that there is a void between these two frozen states of matter, and we can assume that in fact this void lasts for some very long time. But we do not notice (do not sense) how long it lasts. Also, sometimes we do not notice how much time passes during sleep. Similarly, even if a long time passes between death and healing again (resurrection), it is not noticeable, since we do not live and feel in this segment. But I think that the other world is completely different, separate from our world.
We can not only go to another world after death, but at any moment (instant) of time, any individual person can be copied to another world, and even this whole world can disappear at any moment, collapse, and probably disappears in that way, but we remain not getting there.
From the point of view of a person who does not believe in God, our world is perhaps infinitely large, and somewhere someone sometime can resurrect a person after his death. According to science, our world is expected to die, and therefore our resurrection in our world may not happen, and it is not believeable that creatures of our world in future can copy a person from the past. But there must be an infinitely large number of other different, not connected to our, “parallel” worlds. And surely someone somewhere out there sometime will recreate a copy of you from the moment before death or from another moment in your life. A copy can be with accuracy up to your senses; inner small, invisible to the naked eye, particles of your body may be different. And you will be recreated not only once, but many times, since numbers of other worlds and of the possibilities for the recreation are infinite. So, life after death can be considered to exist with probability of more than 100%.
And in all places where you have not yet been recreated, you, as a mind, will be unconscious, you will not feel anything.
I am a Muslim, and this theory does not contradict Quran.
In these verses, I think, it is hinted that the end of the world can come at any moment:
(I will use Umm Muhammad (Sahih International) translation of Quran).
16:77. And to Allah belongs the unseen [aspects] of the heavens and the earth. And the command for the Hour is not but as a glance of the eye or even nearer. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.
42:17. It is Allah who has sent down the Book in truth and [also] the balance. And what will make you perceive? Perhaps the Hour is near.
In ayah 20:15 is an explanation of why it is simply not written directly that the end of the world comes at every moment – because for some reason God hides that:
20:15. Indeed, the Hour is coming – I almost conceal it – so that every soul may be recompensed according to that for which it strives.
Here in these verses, perhaps, it is also meant that a person can be copied even before his death:
27:65. Say, “None in the heavens and earth knows the unseen except Allah , and they do not perceive when they will be resurrected.”
4:157. And [for] their saying, “Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah .” And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. … 4:158. Rather, Allah raised him to Himself. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.
The idea of creatures that can resurrect people does not contradict the Quran either, because in the Quran things created by humans are considered created by God:
20:53. [It is He] who has made for you the earth as a bed [spread out] and inserted therein for you roadways and sent down from the sky, rain and produced thereby categories of various plants.
43:12. And who created the species, all of them, and has made for you of ships and animals those which you mount.
In the Qur’an about the distance to resurrection: there is no contradiction with the fact that people will be unconscious (probably mostly unexistent); it is not clearly written there that people will live in the grave, as it is written in some hadiths:
13:5. And if you are astonished, [O Muhammad] – then astonishing is their saying, “When we are dust, will we indeed be [brought] into a new creation?” Those are the ones who have disbelieved in their Lord, and those will have shackles upon their necks, and those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally.
23:99. [For such is the state of the disbelievers], until, when death comes to one of them, he says, “My Lord, send me back 23:100. That I might do righteousness in that which I left behind.” No! It is only a word he is saying; and behind them is a barrier until the Day they are resurrected.
40:45. So Allah protected him from the evils they plotted, and the people of Pharaoh were enveloped by the worst of punishment – 40:46. The Fire, they are exposed to it morning and evening. And the Day the Hour appears [it will be said], “Make the people of Pharaoh enter the severest punishment.”
Quran does not clearly state that the future of this world is only one. The word “fate” (“taqdir“) is made from the verb “to determine fate” (“qaddara”), and it, in turn, is made from the verb “can” (“qadara”) by a method of obtaining the verb with the meaning “to make so that it can”. “qaddara” means, in addition to “predetermine”, also “determine”, “evaluate”, “give (someone) opportunity to do (something)”, “predict, try to guess”. In Quran, the verb “qadara” also means “limit“. Therefore, I think that the concept of “predestination of fate” (“taqdir”, “qaddara”) in Quran can mean “limitation of possibilities”, and not “predestination up to smallest details”. This is very natural, for example, a specific athlete will not be able to jump higher than a certain height, in his/her this world life.
(This is translated by me from my text in Russian, with help of translate.google.com, en.wiktionary.org, google.com, thesaurus.com, sinonim.org, ru.wiktionary.org, dic.academic.ru, context.reverso.net, merriam-webster.com, ell.stackexchange.com, forum.wordreference.com, macmillandictionary.com, english.stackexchange.com, islamawakened.com, quran.com, falaq.ru.)